悉尼assignment 代寫:航空公司績效評估

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  • 悉尼assignment 代寫:航空公司績效評估

    衡量航空公司績效
     
    航空公司績效評估是確定航空公司發展進程的重要手段,隨著競爭的加劇和產業的發展,績效指標在航空公司的決策、預測和經營管理中發揮著重要的作用。安德魯·博斯先生的做法是大致了解業績因素。在我的報告中,我將以一種井然有序的方式對業績進行分類,以便更好地理解。Forsyth,Hill and Trengove(1986)提出效率是指單個航空公司以最少的投入產生盡可能大的產出的能力。Etherington和Var(1984)解釋說,商務和非商務旅行者分析必須分開進行,因為兩者都有不同的要求和先決條件。
     
    根據美國交通部交通統計局(Bureau of Transportation Statistics)的數據,確定需要測量的是最重要的;以下是三個主要的績效因素:
     
    •財務計量
     
    •就業和交通測量
     
    •運營費用計量
     
    財務計量
     
    這些都是衡量航空公司財務方面業績的指標,一家航空公司不實現財務目標的情況不會持續太長時間,而這些通常被視為主要業績指標。這些指標進一步分為四個次級措施,如下所示:
     
    a) 每位始發旅客的系統運營利潤/(虧損):顯示每位旅客的利潤或虧損
     
    b) 每名始發旅客的系統運營費用(不包括支線飛機合同):它衡量各航空公司相對于始發旅客的支出。經營一家航空公司所需的一切費用,不包括與區域噴氣機活動有關的合同費用,均包括在本計量中。
     
    c) 每架飛機的系統運營費用(不包括支線飛機合同):這項措施將運營航空公司的總費用分攤到承運人的每架單獨運營飛機上,不包括非干線支線飛機合同費用。
     
    d) 每名始發旅客的旅客收入(不包括支線飛機合同收入):它衡量航空公司為每名始發旅客收到的平均收入額。
     
    這些因素的一些例子如下:
     
    在第2007年,美國西部是低成本航空公司的領先航空公司,每個乘客利潤超過15美元,而ATA每旅客損失最大66.35美元。同樣,ATA的每名乘客的最高費用約為459美元,而西南航空的每名乘客的最低費用為104美元。
     
     
     
    就業和交通措施
     
    這些指標對于測量交通密度(每段時間的乘客)和就業率以及兩者的混合至關重要。這些是評估航空公司受歡迎程度和市場滲透率的次要指標。航空公司的交通密度越大,乘客就越多,因此占據了更多的市場份額。這一類共有四項措施如下:
     
    a) 每架飛機的全職等效員工(FTE):每架飛機的員工提供了一個衡量航空公司效率的指標,即每生產單位所有員工的平均人數。每架飛機的雇員人數越少,說明效率越高
     
    b) 每個全職員工(FTE)的平均每月可用座位里程(ASM):ASM(一個飛機座位飛行一英里)是航空業的基本生產單位。這是衡量全職員工生產率最簡單的指標。
     
    c) 每個全職員工的平均月收入飛機分鐘數(FTE):評估生產績效時最中性的共同點是每個員工的收入飛機分鐘數。無論航空公司的商業模式(長途或短途航線)或使用的飛機類型如何,飛行時間都是飛機設計的目的。
     
    d) 每個全職員工的平均每月始發乘客數(FTE):這是一個基本的衡量標準,用于評估與航空公司員工規模相比,運輸了多少獨特的乘客。
     
    這些指標是航空公司交通和就業的績效指標。一家穩定的航空公司會對這些指標有很好的價值。例如,2007年,西北航空和聯合航空將每架飛機的全職員工減少了22%,同年,低成本航空公司每名全職員工產生166名始發乘客,而網絡航空公司每名全職員工產生69名乘客。

    悉尼assignment 代寫:航空公司績效評估

    Measuring Airline Performance
    Airline performance measurement is very vital in identifying the progress of the airline, due to increasing competition and growing industry, the performance indicators play very important role in decision making, forecasting, and management operations. The approach of the Mr. Andrew Boss was to give an idea of the performance factors in general. In my report I will classify the performance in a well arranged manner for better understanding. Forsyth, Hill and Trengove (1986) proposed that efficiency is the ability of individual airline to produce the greatest possible output with the least possible input. Etherington, and Var (1984) explained that business and non-business travelers analysis must be separately done as both have different requirements and prerequisites.
    Identifying what is needed to be measured is most important, according to United States Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics; the following are the three main performance factors:
    Financial Measurement
    Employment and Traffic Measurement
    Operating Expenses Measurement
    Financial Measurement
    These are the measures that give the financial aspects of the airline performance, an airline not fulfilling the financial goals is not going to last long, and these are often considered as primary performance measures. These indicators are further divided into four sub measures as given below:
    a) System Operating Profit/(Loss) per Originating Passenger: Shows profit or loss per passenger
    b) System Operating Expenses (excluding Regional Jet Contract) per Originating Passenger: it measures how much each airline spends in relation to the originating passengers it carries. All expenses necessary to operate an airline excluding contracted expenses relating to regional jet activity are included in this measurement.
    c) System Operating Expenses (excluding Regional Jet Contract) per Aircraft: This measure spreads the total expenses to operate an airline over each of the carrier’s individual operating aircraft excluding non-mainline Regional Jet contract expenses.
    d) Passenger Revenue per Originating Passenger (excluding Regional Jet Contract Revenue): it measures the average amount of revenue received by the airline for each originating passenger.
    Some examples of these factors are given below:
    In year 2007, America West was the leading airline in low cost carrier with over $15 per passenger profit while ATA was in maximum loss of $66.35 per passenger. Similarly ATA had the highest expenses per passenger at around $459 while Southwest was operating at the lowest cost of $104 per passenger.
     
    Employment and Traffic Measures
    These indicators are essential in measuring the traffic density (passenger per certain time) and employment turnovers and the mix of the two. These are the secondary measures to evaluate the popularity and market penetration of the airline. The greater the Traffic density of an airline is the more passengers it is taking hence occupying more market share. There are a total of four measures in this category given below:
    a) Full-Time Equivalent Employees (FTEs) per Aircraft: Employees per aircraft provide one measure of an airline’s efficiency with respect to the average number of all its employees per unit of production. The smaller the number of employees per aircraft indicates greater efficiency
    b) Average monthly Available Seat-Miles (ASMs) per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): ASMs (one aircraft seat flown one mile) are the basic unit of production in the airline industry. This measure is the simplest gauge of FTE productivity.
    c) Average Monthly Revenue Aircraft Minutes per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): The most neutral common denominator in evaluating production performance is revenue aircraft minutes per employee. Irrespective of an airline’s business model (long haul or short haul routes) or type of aircraft it utilizes, flight time is what the aircraft were designed to do.
    d) Average Monthly Originating Passengers per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): It is a basic measure reviewing how many unique passengers are transported compared to the size of the airline’s workforce.
     These indicators are the performance indicators of the airline’s traffic and employment. A stable airline would have good values for these indicators. Like for example, in year 2007 Northwest and United reduced FTEs per aircraft by 22 percent and in the same year the low-cost carriers generated 166 originating passengers per FTE employee compared to 69 passengers per FTE for the network airlines.

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