International Business代寫:全球化對經濟主權的影響

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  • International Business代寫:全球化對經濟主權的影響
     
    介紹
     
    全球經濟一體化是一個持續的過程。經濟全球化正在拉近各國之間的距離。同時,它也在挑戰每一個跨越國界的國家的主權。本文將著重探討全球化對政治主權(即國家的政策選擇)和經濟主權(即國家在國民經濟中的作用)的影響。首先,分析全球化進程和政治經濟主權概念。在此基礎上,本文將探討全球化進程中國家主權的增強與削弱。本文將從國內外以及發達國家和發展中國家的角度進行分析。歐盟的情況將作為
     
    全球化將世界塑造成經濟、社會關系、文化和價值觀的一體化。特別是經濟全球化是一個最顯著的過程,其特征是生產、貿易和資本流動。Kanter(1995)將全球化描述為“一個不斷增長的購物中心”,Gilpin(2001)將其解釋為世界經濟的一體化。Scholte(2008)從國際化、自由化和西化三個維度解讀了全球化的本質。從經驗上看,全球化進程中正在發生的變化遠遠大于經濟中的變化。全球化時代見證了人類社會的深刻變革,人類社會在意識形態、身份認同、利益分化和重組、國民經濟和政治水平等方面都發生了變化。
     
    90年代初,全球化迅速發展。進入21世紀,全球化的思想被公認為不可逆轉的進步,新的世界秩序正在形成,取代了雅爾塔體系下的舊秩序。
     
    結論
     
    全球經濟一體化對各國的各個方面都產生了深遠的影響。全球化趨勢有其優缺點。全球化影響了國家主權的基本內容,即政治主權和經濟主權。政治主權類似于傳統的主權內容,而經濟主權則是全球經濟一體化的產物。討論的重點是全球化是否增強或損害了國家主權的問題。對樂觀主義者來說,他們認為全球化是一個由國家推動的進程,全球化本身就是國家主權強制執行的產物。然而,更多的研究集中在經濟全球化損害國家主權這一事實上,涉及國內和國際層面。歐盟的成功和歐元區目前面臨的經濟危機似乎是矛盾的,它顯示了硬幣的兩面。總的來說,對于發達國家和大國來說,全球化增強了它們獲取利益的能力,而對于欠發達國家來說,全球化在一定程度上損害了它們的主權,但卻有助于它們的經濟發展。因此,無論是發達國家還是發展中國家都面臨著挑戰和機遇。

    International Business代寫:全球化對經濟主權的影響

    The implication of economic globalization on political and economic sovereignty of states
    Introduction 
    Global economic integration is an ongoing journey. Economic globalization is bringing closer the distance of nations. At the same time, it is challenging the sovereignty of every nation crossing national boundaries. This essay will focus on the impact of globalization on political sovereignty –that is, policy options for states, and economic sovereignty –that is, the role of the state in national economies. Firstly, it will analyze the process of globalization and concepts of political and economic sovereignty. Following this, the essay will discuss whether the national sovereignty is enhanced or impaired in the process of globalization. It will be analyzed from the perspective of inside and outside the states, as well as the developed and developing. The case of EU would be studied as 
    Globalization has been shaping the world as an integration of economies, social relations, cultures and values. Especially, economic globalization is the most remarkable process, featuring the aspects of production, trade and capital flow.  Kanter (1995) described globalization as ‘a growing shopping mall,’ Gilpin (2001) interpreted it as the integration of world economy. Scholte (2008) interpreted the essence of globalization in three dimensions: internationalization, liberalization and westernization. From empirical observations, the undergoing changes in the process of globalization are far more than that happening in economy. The era of globalization has been witnessing the profound change of human society, which evolves change of ideology, identity, differentiation and reorganization of interest, and levels of national economies and politics.
    Early l990s has witnessed the rapid expansion of globalization. Entering the 21st century, the idea of globalization has been commonly recognized as the irreversible progress, with a New World Order coming into being that replaced the old one under Yalta System. 
    Conclusions 
    Global economic integration has cast profound influence on all aspects of nations. The trend of globalization has its merits and demerits. Globalization has affected the basic contents of national sovereignty –that is political sovereignty and economic sovereignty. Political sovereignty is similar to traditional contents of sovereignty, while economic sovereignty is a recent topic that is resultant of global economic integration. Discussion focuses on the question of whether globalization has enhanced or impaired national sovereignty. For optimists, they see globalization as a process that is promoted by nations, and globalization itself is a product of enforcement of national sovereignty. However, more studies focus on the fact that economic globalization impairs national sovereignty, regarding internal and international dimensions. The success of EU and the economic crisis within EU zone it faces nowadays seem to be paradoxical, which shows the both sides of the coin. In general, for the developed and the great powers, globalization has enhanced their capacity in gaining interests, while for the less developed, their sovereignty has been impaired to some extent, however a help in developing their economy. Therefore, there lies both the challenge and opportunities for both the developed and developing countries. 
     

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